Yi Hyun - How is Media Manipulated
I went to university back in the 80s. The 80s were dark times. When people from my generation look at today’s university students, we’re really jealous on one hand. They’re a lot more carefree than we are. When I was in university, times were dark and depression, and we had a lot of issues to worry about.
When I went to university- you know that metal sculpture in the front of Seoul National University? to the left of that we, the students would walk in single file, and to the right, you know who would enter the campus? The police. In front of Seoul National University is the largest police station in Asia. The station is about 1.5, 2 kms to the school and there would be a line of policemen extending from the station all the way to the front gate of the school in the morning, where they would enter with the students. How many police men would enter? A minimum of 1000 policemen, every day.
The campus was filled with police. Every bench was occupied with a police man. Every spot of grass where students could sit down was in hearing range of a police man. Because of this, you couldn’t smile at school. If you smiled, you either had mental issues, or you has NO thoughts whatsoever to the situation around you.
This is a time when we felt that every phone inside the school was bugged. We knew every room was bugged too. So when we communicated in our rooms, we hardly ever talked. If it was important, we wrote it down. What did we do with the papers that we wrote things down on? We burned them.
Participating in a protest once for us was something that could get you killed. So we had to be really careful when spreading the news about a protest. You NEVER passed on information about a protest by phone. What would happen is you would walk through the grass fields, and an upperclassmen would, from behind, start walking next to you, and as they walk side by side with you, without looking at you, they’d say “month, day, time” and the second you heard that your heart would start racing. You feel like you’ve become a independence fighter. And because of that idealism, you’d end up going to the protest despite how dangerous it was.
Later on, if you guys study Communications, publication, sociology, history, or political science, you’ll be granted access to historical archives of the newspapers of the 1980s and of before, during Park’s dictatorship or Chun’s. Back then, there were the 4 major papers since it was before the creation of the Hangyureh, but the 4 papers were the Chosun, the Donga, the Joongang, and the Hanguk were the 4 major papers.
In that era, all 4 papers would be the same. If you looked at the front page, every newspaper, everyday would be the same. There would be a picture in the upper left or in the upper center. What picture? Park Chunghwee’s picture, or Chun Duhwan’s picture. Doesn’t it sound like I’m talking about North Korea right now?
Even the titles of articles were the same. How do newspapers produce articles with the same titles? Do all reporters think as one?
The secret was revealed, how that was possible.
One of my upperclassmen became a reporter. He was a person who believed that he could instill justice in society through the pen. So he dreamed of writing of what’s right, and so he dreamed of becoming a reporter, and eventually became a reporter.
He became a reporter, but they had him writing fiction novels.
When Chun DuHwan was in power, go read the Chosun Daily. Notice how they praise, almost worship Chun. Those apathetic bastards. I have never heard about these people apologizing. I haven’t heard of them kneeling in front of the Korean masses and apologizing for what they did. That newspaper still remains today.
This is the newspaper that, during the Gwangju massacre, called the people protesting for democracy as “thugs under the control of North Korean agents” and called it the Gwangju riots, I haven’t heard of the people responsible for this ever apologizing.
Anyways, my upperclassmen who became a reporter, he would ask the other reporters with more experience who were older than him if they became a reporter to be doing this shit, is this what a reporter should be doing? And every single one of them told him he was too naive and he was too young.
Back then there was a government ministry called the Ministry of Culture and Public Relations, and inside this ministry was the department of Public Relations and Advertisement. Every day, this department would fax something to every major newspaper’s editing office. The title of this fax was “Government Order on Reporting”.
The things that were on the order were things such as "do not ever write an article on x", number 2, "when writing an article about a certain topic, do not ever use a certain phrase in the title", number 3, "when writing an article about a certain topic, make sure to use the specified phrase in the title", and finally number 4, "limit the length of an article to a specific number of lines of print".
The measurement in Korea back in the days was dan. Now, all the newspapers are read horizontally, but back in the 80s, you would read the newspaper vertically, from top to bottom, and then left to write. A dan represented a vertical length. It still remains to this day, as a front page of a newspaper, disregarding the margins, is 13 dan from top to bottom. This order would tell the newspapers to only reserve 1 dan for a certain story, or 5 dans for another story.
So if a story is 1 dan, would the story’s importance be emphasized or not? Of course not, the importance of the story would be presented as being very small. If the story covers a whole 5 dans, more than 1/3 of the front page, the story becomes larger, more discussed, seemingly more important. If a story was as large as 8 dans, it’s top news. But hardly any stories went up to 8 dans and even a story that’s 5 dans was big news.
What’s funny is that no matter how trivial something is, if you give it 5 dans of newspaper coverage on the front page, it seems like a dire matter. Inversely, if you take a very important topic and only give it 1 dan of coverage on the front page, the story feels trivial or it isn’t even seen.
This is the basics of media manipulation.
And then enters the TV. How do you manipulate the TV news to emphasize importance? What is the basic of TV news media manipulation?
The order the stories are presented in.
The first story presented is the story the broadcasting center chose as the most important. We too perceive the first story as the most important.
Do you understand?
So back in the days of Park and Chun, it was the government who was deciding this, up to the mid 80s. It helped that there was a government official in every editing office. Members of the Korean CIA would be in the editing office and oversee the newspapers and news shows and reporters.
And that’s why you got the same newspaper everyday.
My upperclassmen who became a reporter took the report orders and copied them and kept them. He kept them and archived them, and eventually he had a press conference.
A reporter opening a press conference.
At this press conference, he didn’t call any Korean reporters. Why? Because if he called Korean reporters, Korean CIA agents came with them. So at this press conference he only called foreign press groups. Reuters, AF press, the AP. These are the groups he called.
Calling in these foreign press groups, he leaked the report orders and explained ”here is a dictatorship which manipulates the media like this”. He leaked the secret to the whole world.
In Korea, we call this the Report Order Incident.
What do you think happened to him? He went to jail. He was fired from his job and then taken to jail. Do you know what they charged him with? Releasing national secrets.
Do you think it was easy for him to become a whistleblower? It probably wasn’t. He would have known that he was going to be taken to jail, right? He knew that he was going to be fired.
But it wasn’t just being fired and being imprisoned. Back then they would torture you. There are people who are disabled today because of the injuries they sustained being beaten and tortured. There are people who died during the torture that they would inflict on prisoners. Do you think he wasn’t afraid of the torture? He probably had the shit beaten out of him. Was he not scared of it?
He probably thought of a lot of things. Does me doing this change the world in the slightest way? Does me doing this alone cause any change in the world? Don’t you think he asked himself these questions?
When this happened, he had just married. Do you think he wasn’t worried for his wife?
Mengzi said, 2300 years ago, to call what is right, right, sometimes you must have the courage to risk your life to do it. To call something wrong, wrong, you have to risk your means of surviving disappearing. And because of that fear, in the face of power, we have a hard time saying what is right is right, and what is wrong is wrong.
There isn’t long to stop it.
EVERYONE NEEDS TO SIGN THIS PETITION RIGHT NOW WHILE YOU STILL HAVE THE INTERNET TO DO SO
Tony Abbott is about the sign off on possibly the worst power grab we’ve ever seen. The Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP)
If he signed this, your internet provider would be FORCED to POLICE YOUR ACTIVITY, and report everything you do online. There would be NO anonymous browsing, no “incognito” modes, no torrenting, no file sharing, NOTHING. Fanfics, fanarts, fanvids, ANYTHING thought to breach ANY kind of copyright, even in a completely harmless way, would be reported, and after THREE STRIKES, you WILL BE SENTENCED.
You thought SOPA was bad? That is NOTHING compared to the TPP.
SIGN THIS NOW
This sculpture by Issac Cordal in Berlin is called “Politicians discussing global warming.”
Even though I’ve been acting chilled and keeping on my blogging stuffs, I still feel a little bit sad and worried that everyone on Tumblr only knows things happening in big countries. I’ve talked about this on my blog only a few times but nobody really pays attention to what I said. Maybe because I don’t have enough followers, maybe because media doesn’t have enough reports about this thing, maybe because nobody has died in this event so people don’t consider it serious.
You guys probably think governments which are being harsh to their people are scary, but recently I realized governments which ignore their people are scary too. My country, Taiwan, is trying to pass a Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement with Mainland China. The problem is not about this agreement, the problem is that our people have no idea how this agreement work, who is in charge with this agreement and how many professional estimation has been done before the agreement gets signed. We are afraid, because if this agreement has some problems, our economy might collapse and thousands people might lose their jobs and their families. This agreement is too sloppy to be signed. Our people tried to express our worry but the government didn’t give a shit.
So on March 17th, hundreds of college students broke into the Legislature and occupied the building. It has been 6 days since those students are inside the building. They have no resources and everything is in bad condition. The building is surrounded by bunches of police officers. Even though the government promised they wouldn’t attack those students, we have no idea what would happen if those students keep on occupying the building. The leader of the students, Lin and Chen, declare that their purpose is to fight for everyone’s right in a peaceful way. They want the government to accept their 2 simple requests: disapprove the agreement and make a new law making sure the agreement would be deliberated in a reasonable procedure. But after 6 days, the government still doesn’t pay attention to them and resist all their requests. Our president, Mr. Ma, also refuses to meet the students leaders to listen to their demands. Students inside and outside the Legislature have been irritated by the government’s attitude. The situation has gone wild and there are even some violence stuffs happened despite how hard the leaders are trying to handle all over 30 thousands angry students.
I just want more people to know about this. My government doesn’t listen to their people’s voice. We are angry and hopeless. Most of these people are under 25, they are just a group of college students who don’t want to watch their own country being treated unfairly. They have no bids to fight with our government. They have been constantly fighting for 6 days. Their parents can’t even go into the building to meet their beloved children. They are exhausted and frustrated but they still don’t want to give up. You think college students only know partying and skipping classes? No. These young adults are fighting for their won country like real warriors. I don’t understand why nobody cares about their actions. They are brave and strong and they are probably just in your age. They need more attention. Even though you probably can’t do anything for them, but your attention might help them keep going on. And your attention might help them to make our government fear. Government needs to be feared by their people.
PLEASE READ THIS AND REBLOG. Things have been out of control last night. Students and people got beaten up by police. I couldn’t stop crying when I watched the news. There were bloods everywhere and the police were even trying to get the media away so they wouldn’t get to record the violence scene…we really need attention. WE NEED MORE PEOPLE TO KNOW WHAT HAPPENED! These students are still young and innocent. They just want to protest for the future of the country but they probably not gonna even meet their families anymore. We’ve got enough coldness from our government. PLEASE DO NOT IGNORE US.
Please don’t ignore us, we really need your help
Here in Australia, this is what has been happening over the past few days. The media is largely ignoring it, despite it being one of the largest protests in this country’s history. My state has also just passed laws that will come into effect in September that put restrictions on protesting which could lead to two years imprisonment. Our Prime Minister won’t even acknowledge that this has been happening.
Please get this circulating. Australian media refuses to cover it and the government is pretending it didn’t happen even though there were people on their doorsteps at Parliament house. People in Australia are discontented with the way asylum seekers are treated like criminals, indigenous people are still being treated horribly, that our prime minister is a racist, sexist, homophobe who appointed himself as Minister for Women, that our health care is threatened, that our environment is being treated as a commodity, that our university funding is being cut, and that our Prime Minister doesn’t “believe” in climate change and that this country now only caters to the rich and conservative. And that barely scratches the surface.
What this government does is not in our name and we need to get the message out there, loud and clear.
Not in our name
RUSSIA HAS DECLARED THAT THEY’RE INVADING UKRAINE OFFICIALLY. NOT EVEN HIDING BEHIND OLD AGREEMENTS. Britain has to aid the Ukrainians against the Russians now, America warned Russia not to, with consequences if they did, so now they’re involved, Canada was looking into what Russia was doing to see how bad it was and they to have to get involved even more.
WHAT PEOPLE DON’T UNDERSTAND IS THAT IT COULD ACTUALLY DRASTICALLY ESCALTED INTO SOMETHING RESEMBLING A WORLD WAR.
you have to wonder how much of this post is legit when one of the tags is “#as much as i love hetalia i dont want another world war though that is an extreme”
but i digress.
yes, russia, the uk, and the us signed the 1994 budapest memorandum, which you can read here. yes, this talks about them respecting the independence of ukraine, and also talks about seeking help from the united nations should ukraine become the victim of aggressors.
however, it also discusses ”economic coercion designed to subordinate their own interest”. this is particularly important if you take into account the fact that russia violated the spirit and letter of this agreement through economic pressure applied to ukraine in the run-up to the vilnius summit. you can read more about that here.
what you have to understand about the 1994 budapest memorandum is that when it states that the four signaturies must ”seek immediate United Nations Security Council action to provide assistance to Ukraine”, this is extremely important. absolutely no action can be taken without the consent of the united nations, especially not an act of aggression. to go against this would be a war crime!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! do you understand!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
the uk and the us CANNOT ACT until the united nations security council meets and discusses ukraine. the ukraine has also petitioned for the budapest memorandum to be looked at, BUT YOU ARE LITERALLY TALKING ABOUT THINGS THAT HAVE NOT HAPPENED YET. even if the unsc meets and talks about ukraine, the uk and us cannot provide military assistance UNLESS THE SECURITY COUNCIL SANCTIONS THIS.
also, regarding america, YOU ARE TALKING OUT OF YOUR ARSE. ANY TIME america talks about “consequences” and “sanctions”, these are economic and political. economic and political isolation are not the same as war.
President Obama made clear that Russia’s continued violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity would negatively impact Russia’s standing in the international community. […] Going forward, Russia’s continued violation of international law will lead to greater political and economic isolation.
there are ALWAYS steps in place to avoid any crisis developing into a war. the united nations security council and the organisation for security and co-operation in europe are both there to stop things like world wars one and two ever developing again.
the organisation for security and co-operation in europe is hosting a meeting on the ukraine crisis on monday, for instance. and the security council is already having a meeting about ukraine.
for you to make this post and write it as though the ukraine crisis will lead to world war 3 is fucking nonsense. why don’t you attempt to educate tumblr rather than fucking… “THIS COULD DRASTICALLY ESCALATE TO WORLD WAR THREE”.
there are organisations SPECIFICALLY IN PLACE TO ENSURE THIS DOES NOT HAPPEN. THEY ARE ACTIVELY MEETING AND DISCUSSING PLANS OF ACTIONS TO ENSURE THIS DOES NOT HAPPEN. THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER HAS ALREADY SAID THERE IS "NO EXCUSE FOR OUTSIDE INTERVENTION IN UKRAINE."
CAN THIS POST SIT DOWN AND GO TO BED NOW.
Oh my god. As I said before, it’s pretty amazing when sheltered folks stop fangirling and suddenly talk about politics. It always ends in bullshit.
Here’s a cheat-sheet guide to the protests in Ukraine, Venezuela and Thailand:
What are the protesters’ demands?
Who’s a better economic ally, Europe or Russia? That’s the key issue at the heart of Ukraine’s protests. Demonstrators want the government to forge closer ties with Europe and turn away from Russia.
But the dispute is also about power. Many in the opposition have called for the ouster of President Viktor Yanukovych and the ordering of new elections. And both on the streets and in parliament, they’ve also pushed to alter the government’s overall power structure, feeling that too much of it rests with Yanukovych and not enough with parliament.
An opposition coalition has been leading the charge against Yanukovych and his allies.
On CNN iReport, protesters and onlookers have shared more than 100 photos and videos of clashes between demonstrators and police. The nighttime images are especially striking — figures are silhouetted against large bonfires set alight in the streets.
When did the demonstrations start?
In November, thousands spilled onto the streets after Yanukovych did a U-turn over a trade pact with the European Union that had been years in the making — with Yanukovych favoring closer relations with Russia instead.
What’s the latest?
Long-simmering tensions exploded anew in Ukraine on Tuesday as clashes between police and anti-government protesters left more than 25 people dead and the capital’s central square on fire.
A shaky truce agreed to late Wednesday disintegrated by the next morning, as gunfire erupted again in the square. At least 100 people have died and 500 have been injured since Thursday morning, the head of the protesters’ medical service told CNN.
The Ukrainian government has not released an updated figure, but the Interior Ministry said earlier that one police officer was among the dead.
Foreign ministers from Germany, France and Poland met with Yanukovych on Thursday and are to meet with opposition leaders too. European foreign ministers convened an emergency meeting in Brussels, Belgium, where they are considering sanctions against Ukraine.
What are the protesters’ demands?
Demonstrators are demanding better security, an end to goods shortages and protected freedom of speech.
They blame Venezuela’s government, led by President Nicolas Maduro, for those problems. Maduro and other officials blame the opposition for the country’s security and economic problems.
Many demonstrators across the country are students. Prominent opposition politicians have also led protests and joined marches.
Since February 13, more than 1,100 images have been uploaded to iReport, CNN’s user-generated platform. Many of the videos and photos are gruesome and depict violent scenes between demonstrators and police.
When did the demonstrations start?
Nationwide student protests started this month. On February 12, the demonstrations drew global attention after three people were killed.
What’s the latest?
As throngs of supporters chanted their support, opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez turned himself in to authorities Tuesday.
Lopez remained in a military prison Thursday as the government pressed terrorism and murder charges against him, his wife said. Lopez has denied the charges, which are connected with violence during the protests.
Maduro, meanwhile, has called members of the opposition fascists and compared them to an infection that needs to be cured. Officials have also accused the United States of plotting to destabilize the government.
What are the protesters’ demands?
Protesters in Bangkok have been calling for months for the ouster of Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra, who they allege is a puppet of her billionaire brother, the deposed, exiled former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.
Opposition to Thaksin and Yingluck is strongest among the urban elites and middle class. That’s why the demonstrations have been concentrated in Bangkok. The protesters want to replace Yingluck’s government with an unelected “people’s council” to see through electoral and political changes.
Thailand residents and visitors have shared dozens of stories of unrest on CNN iReport over the past month. The latest approved photos show demonstrators sleeping in the streets in Bangkok as a form of peaceful protest.
When did the demonstrations start?
Protests began in November after Yingluck’s government tried to pass an amnesty bill that would have paved the way for her brother’s return to the political fray.
What’s the latest?
Deadly violence erupted in the heart of Bangkok on Tuesday as anti-government protesters clashed with police, and the country’s anti-corruption commission filed charges against the Prime Minister.
I’m going to sleep
One last time, please, I place my trust in you one more time:
Venezuela is sinking. Tomorrow, cities will wake up fully militarized, and goodness only knows what will happen to anyone who dares to go out. Please, go through all the material in the #Venezuela tag or blogs such as mine — take a look at what’s been going on!
People are dying. Please stop and help us. Get the word out, make sure that the evidence is where it cannot be destroyed. Talk to people about this. Make it part of your day.
Don’t let us vanish into the night, forgotten. Too many have already died. One was more than enough, too many.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JNYhQ936MCg — “How do you sleep when your neighbors are dying outside?” (TW: graphic death, death.)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V0HF9WxQYCQ — Attack in Altamira
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYO9pE3A1ss — National Guard vandalizes and attacks houses
http://socialredemption.tumblr.com/post/77179818479/urb-el-bosque-en-valencia-algunas-personas — Wounded by collectives. TW Blood
PLEASE STOP AND REBLOG. Please help us!!
I have the time to write now, sadly, because I am combat ineffective. I am wounded. My sister is wounded. Many of my friends are wounded. One of my squadmates is reportedly dead. Without any euphemisms it’s war here. Kyiv is blocked from all sides, airports, highways and railroads are blocked. The internet is one of the few ways of communication right now, and even here we are experiencing troubles, so I try to reach out at least somehow.
The morning was promising, as changes to the constitution were on hearing in the parliament. Tens of thousands of people marched peacefully to support the opposition, but police opened fire first. Then fighting broke up on the streets, we were holding the line and launched efficient counter-attacks, but eventually we, scarcely armed, were badly outgunned. They started to use live ammunition. Unfortunately , we couldn’t sustain the panic and were forced to flee. It was a massacre. No euphemisms, again. The outer barricades only lasted so much, before we lost our ground and were pushed back to the Maidan, the central square. It’s our last stand.
Casualties are mounting every ten minutes or so. Currently there are 20 dead who are reported, in reality there are many more. The number of wounded is well over a thousand, and I’d say a third of them are injured badly. The government uses not only Berkut riot police, but also hired thugs, convicted or pending criminals, armed with traumatic and combat weapons. On the other hand, the official report states 7 policemen dead and 139 wounded, 5 in coma.
The atrocities they committed are hard to describe, really. I thought I saw enough shit in my life, especially for the last three months, but this… Live ammunition fired in the backs of fleeing civilians - women, children, the elderly. We kinda got used to them taping nails and rocks to grenades and firing those in the crowd, but those were against prepared people, with shields, body armor etc. You can imagine what this kind of shrapnel does to people, who were unprepared, who gathered there simply because it was their constitutional right.
The reason I am writing this is because, let’s be honest, I am grasping straws. We all kinda do right now. Spread the word, please. If you have the time, write a blog or something, or just say it on the chat, just let them know. Let the world remember that Ukraine chose to die standing, rather than living on her knees.
I know I rarely post anything of actual importance and I know none of you give a crap about what I say, but please read this.
I am from the very very very Republican state of Kansas, where our politicians have just passed a bill called the Kansas House Bill 2453 where it allows businesses and government employees to deny service to same sex couples. [x] [x] [x]
I, personally will not just stand here and take this unlawful discrimination from this God awful House of Reps, nor anyone else. There are so many things wrong with this bill that I can’t even type them out at this point. I am just so sickened by my home state and these representatives.
So, I am begging each and everyone of you to please sign this petition which opposes the bill. If you do not want to sign the bill, please at least reblog this post so others can see it. We only need 1,702 votes left, so PLEASE reblog this!
What would have once sounded like a far-fetched feminist fantasy – women forming the majority of a parliament – is a reality in one country in the world, Rwanda.
In fact, women are making gains throughout all of Africa, but these achievements have been met with a loud silence from the western feminist movement.
House votes to avert government shutdown, delay Obamacare
AP: The U.S. House voted to delay the Affordable Care Act and repeal a tax on medical devices as part of a government funding bill.
The White House issued a veto threat on the measure and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev., said the Senate would reject the health care language.
To avoid a government shutdown, Congress must agree to a spending bill before the end of Monday.
Undeterred, House Republicans pressed ahead with their latest attempt to squeeze a concession from the White House in exchange for letting the government open for business normally on Tuesday. “Obamacare is based on a limitless government, bureaucratic arrogance and a disregard of a will of the people,” said Rep. Marlin Stutzman, R-Ind.
The bill now goes back to the Senate, which isn’t schedule to meet until Monday afternoon.
Photo: House Speaker John Boehner of Ohio, walks to the House Floor at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, Saturday, Sept. 28, 2013. (Molly Riley / AP Photo)
Passed in a time crunch after midnight Eastern time in the U.S. this morning. What’s next? They essentially ignored a not-at-all consideration call by Senate leader Reid and a veto threat by President Obama at the White House. Also, the Senate doesn’t meet until 2PM Monday, 10 hours before the deadline. Dun dun dun… duuuun.
Whatever your thoughts on the weekend’s election, I think the peaceful and polite transfer of power is one of our greatest achievements.
I would like to meet Quentin Bryce some day. She seems like an amazing person.
It’s a strange (and rather uncomfortable) reminder that while electing a new government may be a big deal to us, we’re still very much the subjects of the Queen.
I’m not sure how many people are awake or reading this, but just as clarification: you vote on two different papers in Australia, one for the senate (white paper) and one for the house of representatives (green paper). For the house of reps there’s usually a dozen or so candidates, which you number by preference from 1 to whatever. For the Senate, you have two options. Voting ABOVE the line means you put a single mark in the box of your preferred party and you’re done. Voting BELOW the line means you spread out the paper, which this year was almost four feet long, and number every candidate (82 in QLD) in every party in order of preference, from start to finish.
It’s more nuanced, especially with Australia’s voting system, but it takes a bloody long time given that there are a whole bunch of single-issue parties at the moment.